to independent electronic music that's free on the
"copyleft?" The opposite of
copyright, as explained by Richard Stallman. Where copyright
protects a creator's right to control copies and changes to a work,
copyleft protects a user's right to copy and change a
A license that allows free re-use and
modification of creative work so long as the derivative work remains
available on the same terms. Copyleft – formally known as the
“General Public License,” or GPL – was initiated by computer
programmer Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation. By
protecting the creativity and energy of the commons from private
appropriation, the GPL has made free software and open source
software possible. A related set of licenses for other types of
creative works has been devised by the Creative Commons.
Open Licensing explanations –
The Creative Commons
License refers to the name of several copyright licenses
released on December 16, 2002 by Creative Commons, a US nonprofit
corporation founded in 2001 .
These licenses all grant certain baseline
rights, such as the right to distribute the copyrighted work on file
sharing networks. The copyright holder has the option of specifying
certain extra conditions:
* Attribution (by): Permit
others to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work and
derivative works based upon it only if they give you credit.
(nc): Permit others to copy, distribute, display, and perform the
work and derivative works based upon it only for noncommercial
* No Derivative
Works (nd): Permit others to copy, distribute, display and
perform only verbatim copies of the work, not derivative works based
Alike (sa): Permit others to distribute derivative works
only under a license identical to the license that governs your
Guide to net labels
netlabel, also called online label, web label or
mp3 label, distributes its music in digital audio formats (mainly
MP3 or Ogg ) online. Netlabels often work like traditional record
labels to produce and promote music projects (such as albums or
compilations ). Most employ guerrilla marketing to promote their
work. Few netlabels earn money for participants.
The primary difference between netlabels and
record labels is that netlabels emphasize free downloads, as opposed
to physical publishing (CD, vinyl or DVD ). Often, the music is
released under licenses that encourage sharing, such as the Creative
Commons Licenses . Artists typically retain the copyright to their
own work, unlike traditional labels.
WHERE TO FIND COPYLEFT
These record labels sponsor bands whose works
are available under free-use/creative commons license. That means
that if you alter their work, and release it as your own- all you
have to do is allow your own work to be altered too!!
* Magnatunes (http://www.magnatunes.com/)
Internet Music Without the Guilt. Magnatune, the open music record
Archive.org (http://www.archive.org/) They
archive various internet sites, audio, and some video. Open
Source Audio. Netlabels.
free web listening for each day of the week.
* Netlabels Catalog (http://www.netlabels.org/) The
is a list, index, directory of music labels which offer you free
downloads from their pages.
Phlow Music Player (http://phlow.de/netaudio/phlow_music_player/)
Within this web label audio streamer, you can choose between top 10
charts from several different "Net Audio" sites, as well as a
variety of full-length mix sets. You can download their standalone
for player for both Windows and Macintosh.
* Opsound: Open Sound Recordings (http://www.opsound.com/) Opsound
is a record label and sound pool using an open source, copyleft
model, an experiment in practical gift economics, and a laboratory
for new ways of releasing music.
Links to Tens of Thousands of Legal Music Downloads.
A copyright is a set of
exclusive rights granted by the government for a limited time to
regulate the particular form, way or manner in which an idea or
information is expressed. Copyright may subsist in a wide range of
creative or artistics forms or "works," including literary works,
movies, musical works, sound recordings, paintings, photographs,
software, and industrial designs. Copyright is a type of
intellectual property .
Copyright law only covers the particular form
or manner in which ideas or information have been manifested, and is
not designed or intended to cover the actual concepts, facts, styles
or techniques which may be embodied in or represented by the ideas
or information. This allows for appropriation, or the borrowing of
ideas, between works of art within the same field.
MP3 ENCODING - These are
2 common forms of MP3 audio:
(1)- variable bit rate
(VBR) encoded MP3s are generally smaller than
standard MP3s of the same sound quality. And they generally sound
better, especially in the high frequencies. Complex sections of the
song (like those with thick bass, or a particularly sharp note from
the violin) need a higher quality encoding than other more simple
sections. When you choose an average bit rate for an MP3 file of
128k, parts of the song will actually sound like (and display)
higher points of say 160, or 192kbps. During some of the more simple
spots of the song (especially moments of complete silence, or those
only with words), your MP3 will encode itself at lower quality of
32k or 64k. Your ears can't tell the difference, I promise! If you
decide that even during the most-simple parts of a track, you don't
want the encoding strength dipping below XXXbps, then you make that
selection within the configuration screen in Audacity.
What are the major advantages of VBR
encoded MP3 files?
- VBR encoded MP3s are generally
smaller than standard MP3s of the same sound quality and generally
sound better, especially in the high frequencies.
- Also, it's great for spoken word audio as there are
often pauses and silence between sentences.
- Taken from http://www.free-codecs.com/
(2)- constant bit rate (CBR)
encoding uses a consistent quality level throughout the
length of the MP3 file. It is the standard default setting for most
CD ripping software. While it may seem as though CBR encoding is
the way to go for a solid encoding job, it's actually just a waste
of space. Slower and older systems may not be capable of encoding
VBR files at a high speed. If time is a huge concern for you than
CBR may be viable. If you are concerned about your hard drive filling
up with MP3s quickly, then VBR is for you.
OGG ENCODING Ogg Vorbis is
an open-source standard which remains royalty and patent-free. That
means anyone can put Ogg support in a
FLAC ENCODING is the
CDex is an open-source solution which also offers enough advanced
options for converting between formats to satisfy the serious
digital music fan. It can be used for extracting audio from CDs, we
asll as perform conversion functions between different audio
CDex to copy music from CD to your computer Here is a concise
guide to using CDex for ripping MP3s from CDs. The screenshots
Here are some guides that will help you. Some
are simple, some are more complex..
Guide to Ripping CD audio & MP3 encoding: If you've ever
downloaded MP3s from the original Napster [now shut down
by the courts], or one of the other file-sharing services,
and found that those songs sounded like crap, it's because the
who encoded those MP3s didn't know the ripping & encoding mojo
you'll learn here. [No, 128-kbps is not
Audacity is an
open-source multitrack audio editor for Windows, Linux and Mac. Ease
of use is one of Audacity's key features. It can be used to make
You can use Audacity on several different platforms
including Macintosh, Windows, and Linux, as seen below.
*You should write e-mails to any record label
or promotional group that may be interested in your station.
Sometimes it takes a lot to impress a business enough to send you
free stuff, but sometimes it doesn't! You should try and contact
those who fit your station's profile, in whatever genre you